“Therefore, O king, let my counsel be acceptable to you: break off your sins by practicing righteousness, and your iniquities by showing mercy to the oppressed, that there may perhaps be a lengthening of your prosperity.” Daniel 4:27
Nebuchadnezzar was king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, which had conquered most of the Middle East. This included the Kingdom of Judah (Israel had already been conquered by the Assyrians, whom the Babylonians supplanted). Daniel was a Hebrew, and thus a captive of the Empire. But he was an important political official, and the king relied on him to interpret dreams, since God gave Daniel prophetic power. The above passage is at the end of Daniel’s interpretation of a dream: Nebuchadnezzar, ruler of much of the known world, would be humiliated. But, if he follows Daniel’s advice, he might be spared.
Therefore you have no excuse, O man, every one of you who judges. For in passing judgment on another you condemn yourself, because you, the judge, practice the very same things. We know that the judgment of God rightly falls on those who practice such things. Do you suppose, O man—you who judge those who practice such things and yet do them yourself—that you will escape the judgment of God? Or do you presume on the riches of his kindness and forbearance and patience, not knowing that God’s kindness is meant to lead you to repentance? But because of your hard and impenitent heart you are storing up wrath for yourself on the day of wrath when God’s righteous judgment will be revealed. Romans 1:1-5
I don’t know about you, but I don’t like being judged. Yet I myself judge things and people everyday. Judgement can be fine, and is even needed, depending on how we do it. We need to judge someone’s ability to carry out a task, for example, and we each have our own preferences in what artistic works that we enjoy. So the question is, what are we judging, and on what authority? In the case of the passage above, Paul is talking about morality, and the tendency of humans, myself definitely included, to judge others in an attempt to prove our own moral superiority. We think that since we are clearly not as bad as that person, we will be saved from judgement. But Paul says here that by judging others, we judge ourselves. We all fail to reach a moral goal, we all do bad things. So what hope do we have? Perhaps that God would show mercy to us?